Electrical Distribution System needs Reactive Power Management, Due to Non-Linear Inductive Loads causes lagging Power Factor. Which results Energy losses, Hence Automatic Power Factor Controller Monitors Real Power (kW) and Apparent Power (KVA) to maintain Power factor unity.
Reduced kVA (Maximum demand) charges in utility bill
Reduced distribution losses (kWH) within the plant network
Better voltage at motor terminals and improved performance of motors
A high-power factor eliminates penalty charges imposed when operating with a low power factor.
Investment on system facilities such as transformers, cables, switchgears etc for delivering load is reduced.
Electricity Supply Board billing maximum demand charges per kVA or kW basis as per contract demand. In the case penalty charges must be paid for of instant of time using kVA or kW demands more than contract demand. Hence Maximum demand can be monitor and control through Maximum Demand Controller with the help of peak clipping, valley ﬁlling in the base line load curve by shifting non-essential loads to reduce Peak demand charges
Maximum Demand Controller is a device designed to meet the need of load management. Alarm is sounded when demand approaches a preset value. If corrective action is not taken, the controller switches oﬀ non-essential loads in a logical sequence. This sequence is predetermined by the user and is programmed jointly by the user and the supplier of the device. The plant equipment’s selected for the load management are stopped and restarted as per the desired load proﬁle. Demand control scheme is implemented by using suitable control contactors. Audio and visual annunciations could also be used.
Beneﬁts of Automatic Voltage Controller are long Life Span up to 25 years, Negligible losses, Reduction in maintenance cost up to 75%, Minimizing the production loss, Improvement of product output quality, short payback period.
Due to Power Quality Issue IEEE-519 Standards, Voltage ﬂuctuation is a common phenomenon in every part of the India. Supply Electricity Board can ensure constant voltage to the customer because of long and inadequate distribution lines and irregular load pattern on distribution lines and irregular load pattern on distribution transformers causes voltage variations. Automatic Voltage Controller (Stabilizer) is an equipment to obtain constant voltage from ﬂuctuating supply system. The industrial units running round the clock usually face the problem of low & high voltage. 60% of industrial load is of motors. Electric motors draw considerably high current at low & high voltage produce higher losses in Electric motors which cause premature failure of winding, and increase the losses of cables, Switches, Transformers & other associated equipment. This higher current of Electric motors requires 15-20% higher setting of over load relay to avoid frequent tripping of motors starter. Higher setting of over relays has very little safety margin against single phasing and over loading conditions. With the installation of the stabilizer and maintaining 380/400 volts, the motor will operate smoothly drawing 15-20% lesser current and corresponding the relay setting can be reduced by 15-20%. In case single phasing occurs, the relay will trip in 40-50 seconds. The motor can withstand the high current for this period and will be safe. also, the relays, contactors, switchgears, etc. incorporated with the motor will be safe. Servo Controlled Stabilizer on single phase or 3 phase lighting loads will save up to 30% to 40% on energy consumption by optimizing voltage levels.
Soft starters are widely used for Motors, pumps, blowers etc., for protection system to minimize the starting currents uses voltage to control the motor torque. When sudden starts and stops causes high inrush currents causes circuit breaker trips, oscillations on generators loads.
Soft starters are load dependent and based on programmed start and stop settings. An algorithm adjusts voltage to increase the current and torque to start the motor. Based on the back electromotive force (EMF) of the motor, the soft starter determines whether the motor is up to speed. If the soft starter detects that the motor is up to speed before the selected timed start, the soft starter applies full voltage and indicates running status. If the motor does not come up to speed in a set time frame, the soft starter applies full voltage depending on load.
Air conditioning is the major energy consumers Part in Building Sectors, industries etc; existing Air conditioning unit’s energy consumed nearly around 30% to 40% in Energy Bill. Hence Air conditioning System needs for intelligent Monitoring and Control, to achieve Signiﬁcant Energy Savings, Cost Beneﬁts and to reduce Peak Demands to achieve Energy conservation
Airco-Saver is a sensor Driven Software Algorithms are designed to detect thermodynamic saturation and to optimize compressor running. When thermal saturation is detected, Airco-Saver switches into “Saving Mode” and turns the compressor oﬀ. Airco-Saver prevents ineﬃcient Overcooling and Saves Power.
Electromagnetic Induction lighting system plays a major role for energy saving up to 60% in place of Conventional lights suitable for High Bay Lighting, Industrial Lighting, Street Lighting Lights etc., for various applications Electromagnetic induction lights available with Color Rendering Index(CRI> 82) are 20W,40W,80W,150W and 200W having Longer-Life Span of around 25 years with very Shorter payback.
Electromagnetic Induction lamps are basically ﬂuorescent lamps with electromagnets wrapped around a part of the tube, or inserted inside the lamp, in external inductor lamps, high frequency energy, from the electronic ballast, is sent through wires, which are wrapped in a coil around the ferrite inductor, creating a powerful magnet. The induction coil produces a very strong magnetic ﬁeld which travels through the glass and excites the mercury atoms in the interior which are provided by a pellet of amalgam radiate the 254 nm.
Compact Fluorescent lamps(CFL) are widely used for internal purpose lighting systems. CFL having an advantages of energy savings up to 40 % by optimizing voltage levels with very less investment cost and longer life span compare to LED lighting system
Generate Harmonics causes energy losses.
Initial High investment cost. Replacement of choke with one or two years. (AC converted into DC due to that heat dissipation in diode causes choke burns.)
High Maintenance cost.
No options for Energy savings on LED lighting system.
Poor Color Rendering Index(CRI) impacts on eyesight.
Failure of choke when voltage ﬂuctuation starts ﬂickering.
Not recommended for Critical Care Centre For Hospitality sector in Operation theratre as per NABH standards.
Colour rendering-index.(CRI) are not suitable for all applications
In Summer Air-conditioning Operating Costs Gradually increases. when Sunlight falls on the roof surface temperature increases up to 60 o C. Hence it is necessary to reduce Building Envelope temperature by Coating an Eco-friendly Heat reﬂective material Cool Roof paints. We can possible to achieve 5 oc to 8 oc reduction in temperature to reduce energy Consumption of 4% on summer peak loads.
Cool surfaces are measured by how much light they reﬂect (solar reﬂectance) and how eﬃciently they radiate heat (thermal emittance). A cool rooﬁng surface is both highly reﬂective and highly emissive to minimize the amount of light converted into heat and to maximize the amount of heat that is radiated away. The coolest surfaces are white, though reﬂective colored surfaces are also available.
Cool rooﬁng technology can be applied to any type of building and almost all rooﬁng material types have cool options and the coatings, light-colored granules and aggregate, reﬂective tiles and more in Summer Season.
Cool roofs may increase the heating requirements for buildings in cooler climates in the winter season. This so-called “winter heating penalty” is often minimal because the sun is at a low angle in the winter months, snow cover on roofs makes the underlying roof cover irrelevant, and heating loads are more pronounced in the evenings, especially in buildings. Thus, the net energy savings for buildings in cooler climates is usually positive, even when there is a winter heating penalty.
Flat belts are capable of not only reducing the power loss in transmission but also enhance the life time of motors due to uniform transmission of power at all times ( due to the operation of only one belt ). Hence, adoption of ﬂat belt drive is recommended as one of the immediate options for electrical energy conservation which can save energy to an extent of 5% to 8 % on operating kW on heavy duty motors.
The higher capacity motors are seldom directly coupled to the driven equipment’s like fans or pumps etc. They are usually coupled to the driven equipment by two methods viz. belt drives or geared drives. There are two standard conﬁgurations in belt-drives: V-Belts or Flat Belts.
Today’s scenario, power quality Issue is the major concern in power sector for reliability and to achieve energy conservation. Due to that Harmonics Present in the Distribution System Causes Overheating of transformers & rotating equipment, Increased Hysteresis losses, decreased kVA capacity, Neutral overloading, Unacceptable neutral-to-ground voltages, Distorted voltage and current waveforms, Failed capacitor banks, Breakers and fuses tripping, Interference on phone and communications systems, Unreliable operation of electronic equipment, Erroneous register of electric meters, Wasted energy / higher electric bills – kw & kwh, Wasted capacity – Ineﬃcient distribution of power, Increased maintenance of equipment and machinery. Hence Harmonic Mitigation is necessary by implementing Harmonic ﬁlters to solve these power quality problems, to achieve energy cost-saving and power system reliability beneﬁts.
Fast growing Energy intensity sector has capable for onsite co-generation by Installing Roof Top Solar Smart Grid Power System. It can Plays a Major role in On-Site Electricity Generation up to 5% or else depend upon roof space available to install solar panels with 25 years of Life Span.
Major Beneﬁts of Solar smart grid systems are income taxes for cogeneration and Implementation of roof top solar smart grid will get Subsidy of Rs 0.50 per unit capacitive power generation and reimbursement of Solar installation cost Rs 5,000,00 through Karnataka Council for Technology Upgradation.
The Major role of an AC Induction Motor’s in Industries energy consumption varies between 60% to 70%, depend upon the duty cycle for several applications to achieve energy conservation is very diﬃcult to fulﬁll supply board power quality needs as Per IEEE-519 and IEC-61000 standards causes energy crisis due to voltage sag swell, unbalanced loads, neutral overloading, Harmonics.
Intelligent Motor Energy Controller Technology having “Low Loss Impedance Systems” working on the Principe of optimizing the voltage supply, by managing power factor, ﬁltering harmonic distortion, protection against dips, spikes, ﬂicker, transient where “Low Loss Impedance Systems” helps equipment to use the only energy it actually requires working eﬃciently with a longer life.
Day by Day utility sector growth nearly around 7 to 12% per year, HVAC-Chiller plants Plays around 40% major energy consuming on present Energy bills in High Rise Building Sectors especially in IT sectors, Data centers, Industrial Sectors etc. Hence HVAC-Chiller Plants setups with Micro-Controlled Based System to monitor integrated load part value(ILPV) cooling demand, Ambient temperature, and Set point to Optimize the Heat Loads for proper Operation and control of Compressor Run-Hour, to achieve Signiﬁcant energy savings reduces peak demands on overall baseline energy consumption refrigeration operating costs.
Moreover, the economic and environmental beneﬁts of Smart Cool are quantiﬁable, allowing them to qualify for ﬁnancial incentives such as rebates from utilities and tax credits from the government of India. Smart cool Systems have been installed at over 27,000 sites around the globe. They are currently reducing total measured electricity consumption by 2,21,000 Mwh hour and greenhouse gas emissions by 2,60,000 tons worldwide!.
Direct electricity reduction and more eﬃcient consumption for HVAC Chiller plants.
Enhanced systems performance and greater ﬂexibility to maintain savings.
Reduction of compressor runtime by up to 30%.
Reduced running, maintenance and operational costs.
Heat pump is a well-known & proven technology, which is used for water heater extracts from the air and uses it to heat water.it uses 1-time power to drive the compressor and brings 4.68 times heat to the water
Heat pumps operating principle is based on compression and expansion of a working ﬂuid. Heat pump can operate in ambient temperature as low as 25 oC and hot water up to 70 oC . As compared to electric heating & conventional air conditioning, one can expect up to 78 % energy saving in power consumption with shorter payback period.
The most common type of heat pump is the air-source heat pump, which transfers heat between your house and the outside air. Today’s heat pump can reduce your electricity use for heating by approximately 50% compared to electric resistance heating such as furnaces and baseboard heaters. High-eﬃciency heat pumps also dehumidify better than standard central air conditioners, resulting in less energy usage and more cooling comfort in summer months.
Heat recovery wheels, also known as a rotary heat exchanger, or rotary air-to-air enthalpy wheel is a type of energy recovery heat exchanger positioned within the supply and exhaust air streams of an airhandling system or in the exhaust gases of an industrial process, in order to recover the heat energy.
Heat recovery wheel consists of a circular honeycomb matrix of heat-absorbing porous material are aluminum, plastic, or synthetic ﬁber, which is slowly rotated within the supply and exhaust air streams of an air-handling system. As the thermal wheel rotates, heat is picked up from the exhaust air stream in one half of the rotation and given up to the fresh air stream in the other half of the rotation. Hence the principle of course works in reverse, and “cooling” energy can be recovered to the supply air stream allows temperature diﬀerential driven by electric motor belt drive system.
Thermic ﬂuid heater is industrial heating equipment, used for heat transfers at atmospheric pressure and high temperature operation. In thermic ﬂuid heaters as, special type of oil-synthetic or mineral is used as heat carrier
Thermic ﬂuid is circulated in the entire system for heat transfers to the desired temperature level set points .Combustion process heats up the thermic ﬂuid carries heat up to 300oC to various process like dryers, heaters, deodourieser etc and then return with a temperature of 10oC to 20o C with circulation pump to Thermic ﬂuid heater.
Thermal Oil Heaters range from 0.1 million kcal/hr to 20 million kcal/hr used fuel are heavy oil, light oil, gas, dual fuel, coal, husk, bagasse and other agro-waste fuels. Thermic ﬂuid is easy to operate, and no corrosion takes place and no heat loss due to condensate system and exhaust ﬂue gas oﬀers potential waste heat recovery options for a suitable application.
Heating ventilation and air conditioning system are very common need in every sectors. HVAC design and implementation are very essential to client’s requirements and expectations on Project Investment cost with durability reliable and cost-eﬀective, requires less installation and maintenance cost and most Energy Eﬃcient to meet peak load demands. HVAC system operating in integrated part load value(IPLV) for maximum eﬃciency to achieve Energy conservation.
Earth Cooling is a method of utilizing this cooling available in the earth. A refrigerant like simple water is pumped through pipes into a bore in the earth. The water gets cooled in the process. This water is then sent through a water-to-air heat exchanger thus cooling the air. This cooled air is then circulated to the required areas for cooling. The advantage of this method is % of RH remains lesser always. As per rough estimates 350 ft of piping is required to achieve 1 Ton of cooling. The power requirements will be only for a 5 HP circulating pump to circulate the water. There are two methods to lay the earth piping either horizontally or vertically.
Earth Cooling Loop Systems is used to reduce the Ambient Water temperature for Heating Ventilating and Air-conditioning Applications around 5 oc, to reduce Energy Consumption of 3.5kW of one tones of refrigerant in Condenser and Evaporator stages of Chiller plants. Earth is function as condenser to reduce the ambient water temperature from around 29 oc to 24 oc. Hence requirement of cooling load to compressor motor reduces. So, adopting this methodology in summer days is very essential to reduce around 7% of Energy Consumptions in overall Peak demands.
Biomass gasiﬁcation is a process of converting solid biomass fuel into a gaseous combustible gas (called producer gas) through a sequence of thermo-chemical reactions. The gas is a low-heating value fuel, with a caloriﬁc value between 1000- 1200 kcal/Nm3 (kilo calorie per normal cubic metre).
Biomass gas can be used as a fuel in place of diesel in suitably designed/ adopted IC (internal combustion) engines coupled with generators for electricity generation or in many heating applications in the industry with Low capital cost & cost of power production of Lower NOx, CO, and particulate emissions in this process organic or fossil fuel based carbonaceous materials converted into producer gas ,a low caloriﬁc power (1000-1200 kCal/m3 ) mix of Carbon monoxide 18%-20%, Hydrogen 15%-20% Methane 1%-5%, Carbon dioxide 9%-12%, Nitrogen 45%-55%. for co-generation eﬃciency of the biomass gasiﬁer process is in the range of 80%–90%.
Biomass gasiﬁcation is a process of converting solid biomass fuel into a gaseous combustible gas (called producer gas) through a sequence of thermo-chemical reactions. The gas is a low-heating value fuel, with a caloriﬁc value between 1000- 1200 kcal/Nm3 (kilo calorie per normal cubic metre).
Huge quantities of agro residues are produced but are ineﬃciently burnt reducing its thermal eﬃciency & causing extensive pollution to the environment. These agro residues can be converted to eﬃcient green fuel by means of biomass briquettes / pellets. The major residues are rice husk, bagasse, soyabean husk, cotton stalks, groundnut shells, sawdust, mustard stalks, coir pith, jute sticks and coﬀee husk etc. Apart from the problems of transportation, storage and handling, the direct burning of loose biomass in conventional grates is associated with very low thermal eﬃciency and widespread air pollution. In addition, a large percentage of un-burnt carbonaceous ash has to be disposed of. Hence if, these materials are processed into high density fuel briquettes/pellets they can be eﬃciently utilized. Biomass briquetting is the densiﬁcation of loose biomass material to produce compact solid composites of diﬀerent sizes with the application of pressure. A Briquette machine allows compressing above mentioned wastes into briquettes that are environmental friendly and have high caloriﬁc value. Burning briquettes as a fuel completes a natural cycle; on combustion they only release as much carbon dioxide back in the atmosphere as was originally absorbed by the growing crops during photosynthesis. Biomass briquettes can be used for power generation or for thermal application but mostly they are used for thermal application in industries replacing conventional fuels FOR SUBSIDY 20% of the briquette/pellet machine cost or max. Rs. 4 lakhs whichever is less.
Many types of Energy Eﬃcient Boilers are used in Various Industries, Power plants, utilities, etc. for process heating applications like steam generation and hot water using solid, liquid and gases fuels according to Indian Boiler Regulation standards.
Energy Eﬃcient pumps handle high ﬂow rates, provide smooth, non-pulsating delivery, and regulate the ﬂow rate over a wide range without damaging the pump. Centrifugal pumps have few moving parts, and the wear caused by normal operation is minimal. They are also compact and easily disassembled for maintenance. The design of an eﬃcient pumping system depends on relationships between ﬂuid ﬂow rate, piping layout, control methodology, and pump selection. Before a centrifugal pump is selected, its application must be clearly understood
Energy Eﬃcient Pumps are used widely in industry to provide cooling and lubrication services, to transfer ﬂuids for processing, and to provide the motive force in hydraulic systems. In fact, most manufacturing plants, commercial buildings, and municipalities and Agriculture demand side management on pumping systems for their daily operation. In the manufacturing sector, pumps represent 27% of the electricity used by industrial systems. In the commercial sector, pumps are used primarily in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to provide water for heat transfer. Municipalities use pumps for water and wastewater transfer and treatment and for land drainage. Since they serve such diverse needs, pumps range in size from fractions of a horsepower to several thousand horsepower
Energy Eﬃcient pumps are generally divided into three classes: radial ﬂow, mixed ﬂow, and axial ﬂow. Since they are designed around their impellers, diﬀerences in impeller design allow manufacturers to produce pumps that can perform eﬃciently under conditions that vary from low ﬂow rate with high head to high ﬂow rate with low head. The amount of ﬂuid a centrifugal pump moves depends on the diﬀerential pressure or head it supplies. The ﬂow rate increases as the head decreases. Manufacturers generally provide a chart that indicates the zone or range of heads and ﬂow rates that a particular pump model can provide.
Today, globally, electric motors account for as much as 60% of industrial energy usage. Industrial energy usage in turn is approximately 70% of national energy usage. Energy-eﬃcient motors, also called Super premium or high- eﬃciency motors, Energy-eﬃcient motors owe their higher performance to key design improvements and more accurate manufacturing tolerances. Lengthening the core and using lower-electricalloss steel, thinner stator laminations, and more copper in the windings reduce electrical losses. Improved bearings and a smaller, more Aerodynamic cooling fan further increase eﬃciency. Thus, a motor that is 85 percent eﬃcient converts 85 percent of the electrical energy input into mechanical energy. The remaining 15 percent of the electrical energy is dissipated as heat, evidenced by a rise in motor temperature. Energy eﬃcient electric motors utilize improved motor design and high-quality materials to reduce motor losses, therefore improving motor eﬃciency. The improved design results in less heat dissipation and reduced noise output.
Energy-eﬃcient motors generally have longer insulation and bearing lives, lower heat output, and less vibration. In addition, these motors are often more tolerant of overload conditions and phase imbalance. This results in low failure rates, which has prompted most manufacturers to oﬀer longer warranties for their energyeﬃcient lines. Improved eﬃciency is available from 60 % to 100 % load. The eﬃciency curve is almost ﬂat resulting in higher energy savings as in most of the cases the motor is not always fully loaded. The special design features also result in lower operating temperatures which enhance the life of motor and reduce the Maintenance costs. These motors have inherently low noise and vibration and help in conservation of environment.
In 1988, the European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (CEMEP) method of testing eﬃciency was in accordance with the International Electro technical Commission (IEC) motor eﬃciency classiﬁcation. IEC60034-2;1996 standard. It is important to note that this was a voluntary guideline, not a deﬁning standard. As of September 2008, the IEC 60034-30:2008 standard became eﬀective. This deﬁnes eﬃciency standards for motors from 0.75 to 375 kW, 2, 4 and 6 poles, 50 Hz and 60 Hz. This is a regulatory standard. Locally it is published as SANS/IEC 60034-30:2008. In conjunction with this standard is IEC60034-21:2007 which deﬁnes the methods of testing eﬃciency. Eﬃciency levels in IEC6003430:2008 are deﬁned as follows: IE1 – Standard Eﬃciency, IE2 – High Eﬃciency, IE3 – Premium Eﬃciency, IE4 – Super Premium Eﬃciency, IE5 – Ultra Premium Eﬃciency.
Energy Eﬃcient Transformer is to convert high-voltage electricity supplied from a power station into lower-voltage electricity for safe use. Transformers operate 24 hours a day, seven days a week during which time they undergo constant losses of 2 to 4% of the electricity that passes through them. This loss is divided into two diﬀerent categories: load losses caused by the load on the transformer during the use of electricity and no-load losses (standby electricity) caused regardless of whether a load is present. Amorphous core transformers signiﬁcantly reduce no-load losses by using an amorphous alloy for the iron core, which the transformer windings that carry the electricity are coiled
Reduced no-load losses
Reduced operating temperature
Reduced energy costs
Reduced energy consumption resulting in reduced Co2
By utilizing amorphous metal as a transformer core material, it is possible to achieve higher transformer Eﬃciency. Because of the improved magnetic properties and the physical dimensions of the Material, the hysteresis and eddy current losses are greatly reduced. With the application of amorphous Metal cores, transformer core loss can be reduced by more than 60%. this means vastly reduced energy consumption and costs over the service life time of the transformer.
Most of the energy consumption in critical power requirement in various application like software industry Information technology Equipment for data center and many oﬃce equipment’s especially computer systems using un-interrupt power supply (UPS). So, it is very important to select Best Eﬃciency point of view in Switching Timings, Thyristor Heat dissipation and IEEE Harmonic distortion limits and Transient DC loads and Battery Eﬃciency in peak loads factors consider to achieving maximum eﬃciency and reduce energy losses in power usage eﬀectiveness (PUE) and Data center Infrastructure Eﬃciency (DCiE).
Street light plays a major role in energy consumption various from 7 to 12% in Industrial lighting, fool campus, High ways roads lighting and High bay lightings and municipal demand side management etc. so it is very essential to switch oﬀ at interval of time using intelligent street light energy controller.
Automatic electrical switch incorporating advanced sensing technology powered by solar energy and robust electrical switching system with wireless communication. This variant eliminates the need to run cables from distribution board to the outdoor installation point of the switch. Sensor can be installed outdoor and will be powered independently by solar panel. Indoor switching system will communicate with sensor over wireless network and switch ON/OFF.
Internet enabled smart switching system oﬀering real-time control and monitoring facility and multiple operation modes to suit your needs. Additional functionality of facilitating energy data, real-time alerts and interactive graphs and charts provide scope for data analysis and preventive maintenance steps.
Nature Switch-GSM is oﬀered for automation of electrical loads with remote management. It is applicable for any type of electrical load such as lighting, air conditioning, motors and other electrical appliances. The control unit is rated for IP65 which houses the SIM card. Once programmed it follows the switching cycle every day until changed.
Energy Eﬃcient Design of Elevators are used special purpose motors to save energy and reduce losses in non-peak loading scheduled applications especially for Healthcare for patient transport, Commercial Buildings and Shopping malls, Metro railways etc. It’s not only durable and attractive. It’s also large enough for patients and equipment, and it’s easy to clean. and special control options for emergency services
Energy Eﬃcient Air compressor uses diﬀerent types of applications in automotive, food & beverage, chemical, electronics, oil & gas, textiles, pharmaceuticals and Healthcare facilities etc to achieve eﬃciency in integrated load part value for control and design air demand in the system intelligent ﬂow control compressed air in diﬀerential pressure at compressor motors are running always in full load.
An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace Higher eﬃciency due to skin eﬀect by high frequency, noncontact in nature, less risk of workpiece contamination recommended quality IEC 62076 Ed.1.0 b:2006, ISO TC 244, ISO/NP 3577/13578/13579, IEC 60519-1 standards that heats charged material by means of an electric Industrial arc furnaces range in size from small units of approximately one ton capacity (used in foundries for producing cast iron products) up to about 400 ton units used for secondary steel making. Arc furnaces used in research laboratories and by dentists may have a capacity of only a few dozen grams. Industrial electric arc furnace temperatures can be up to 1,800 °C (3,272 °F), while laboratory units can exceed 3,000 °C
Diesel Generator (DG) Sets are widely used in all applications for onsite cogeneration especially in Supply electricity Board load scheduling purpose. Hence recommended DG sets designed for operating always in 80% percentage average loading to achieve maximum eﬃciency and to reduce various losses using Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS) and Synchronization System for proper operation and Control of DG systems
35% of Electrical Output.
4% of Alternator Losses.
33% of Stack Loss through Flue Gases.
24% of Coolant Losses.
4% of Radiation Losses.
For Exploring Speciﬁc Energy Generation Ratio (Benchmark SEGR is 3.2 unit kWh/litre) Performance Assessment are carried out for DG sets in terms of Speciﬁc Fuel Consumption (SFC i.e. kWh/Litre for Energy Conservation Options (ENCON) in DG Sets).