Vibration analysis is the Fast Fourier Transformer(FFT) waveform techniques used to measuring the magnitude of vibrations with the help of spectrum analysis determine peak to peak and route mean square(RMS) frequency signals to find acceleration, velocity, displacement using piezo electric accelerometer, transducers, Acoustic Emission signals (ultrasound signals) sensors identified crest factor indicating mechanical faults such as bearings defaults, misalignment, imbalance severity conditions.
⦁ Amplitude (how much?) i.e. Displacement (microns), Velocity
(mm/sec), Acceleration (g)
⦁ Frequency (how often the signal moves µpp back and forward)
⦁ Phase (the time relationship between vibrating forces).
Condition monitoring and diagnostics performing ISO 18436-2:2014 standards of machines for vibration analysis identifies various faults like motor bearing faults, line phase, voltage imbalance, motor air gap problem, Foundation vibration, motor shaft alignment, Motor Drive End(DE) and Non-Drive End(NDE), Horizontal and Vertical axis.
Typical roller bearings
Low frequency: 2 Hz – High frequency: orders up to 70x RPM – Resolution: 800 to 1600 lines – Averages: 4 to 6, with overlap •
Typical sleeve bearings
Low frequency: 2 Hz – High frequency: orders up to 20x RPM – Resolution: 800 to 1600 lines – Averages: 4 to 6, with overlap •
Low frequency: 2 Hz – High frequency: orders up to 120x to 240x RPM – Resolution: 1600 to 3200 lines – Averages: 6 to 10, with overlap.
Lubrication analysis is the diagnostic tool can determine bearings health by Acoustic Emission Ultrasound(dB) and FFT spectrum analyzing in dynamic machines under operating conditions usually by sampling lubricants analysis and measures the physical and chemical properties of oil and grease claddy system.
Lubrication oil analysis system is important in selecting the most cost-effective methods for identification of friction losses in rotating parts to save operating energy cost and increase life span of machinery.
The American Society of Testing Methods (ASTM) provide standards and instructions for sampling various types of oil testing are in Engine system, hydraulics and power transmission, gear systems, turbines, compressors etc.
2. Water Removal (ASTM D664, ASTM 4928).
b) Filtration with Desiccant Filters.
3. Removal of Oxidation. (ASTM D2272, D6971)
5.Elemental Analysis (ASTM D6595)
a). Internal contaminants are best identified by monitoring for Iron, Copper, Tin-Lead, Aluminum, Chromium, Zinc, Phosphorous, Barium, Calcium, Magnesium, and Molybdenum, Silver Nickel, Titanium, and Antimony, all of which are indicative of internal wear products and sources.
b). External contaminants are monitored using spectroscopy and trending elemental levels of Silicon, Sodium, and Potassium. Parameters monitored to detect byproducts of lubricant chemical breakdown include FT-IR spectroscopy (ASTM E2412: Fuel Dilution, Soot, Glycol, Oxidation, Nitration, Sulphation).
6.Viscosity (ASTM D445//2270).
7.Total Acid Number (TAN- ASTM D664, D974).
8.Total Base Number (ASTM D4739,2896).
9.Particle Count / ISO 4406:99.
10.Neutralization number (ASTM 974/664).
11.Alkalinity (ASTM 2296).
12.Flash point. (ASTM D92).
13.Air Release (ASTM D3427).
14.Foaming (ASTM D892).
15.Demulsibility (ASTM D1401).
16.Corrosion (ASTM D130).
17.Rust (ASTM D130).
18.Specific Gravity (ASTM D1298).
In-situ Fan balancing is a procedure that enables the correction of unbalance in rotating machines are in operating condition environment along with misalignment, unbalance causes more premature and catastrophic failures in rotating machinery than any other fault.
In situ dynamic balancing are critical components of your rotating machinery maintenance increasing performance strategy. Improved balancing and alignment procedure sand tools can extend machine life from months to years. Predictive maintenance and root-cause strategies help maximize the reliability and availability of production assets.
In situ dynamic balancing offers dynamic balancing service which is an operation of making the center of gravity of the rotary mass in line with the axis of rotation to reduce the centrifugal force and resultant couple which are the main causes of the vibration.
All rotating components experience significant quality and performance improvements if balanced. Balancing is the process of minimizing vibration, noise and bearing wear of rotating bodies. When unbalance has been identified and quantified, the correction is straightforward. Weight has to be either added or removed from the rotating element. The ultimate aim being to reduce the uneven mass distribution so that the centrifugal forces and hence the vibrations induced in the supporting structures are at an acceptable level. Implementing a balanced work according to the recommendation that includes ISO – 1940 provides the following advantages:
⦁ Decrease fatigue loading.
⦁ Reduced vibration and noise.
⦁ Saving energy in the rotating machines.
⦁ Increased reliability.
⦁ Improves product quality.
⦁ Reduces downtime.
⦁ Reduce labour and material costs.
⦁ Extends bearing and machine life
⦁ Reduces the possibility of catastrophic failures
⦁ Increases safety
Laser Shaft Alignment plays an important role in rotating machines Operating conditions. While using the laser tool misaligned in shafts are identified to reduce significantly reduce operating and maintenance costs. Laser shaft alignment having a unique state-of-the-art technology for alignment of shafts adopting methods are straightedge, thickness gage or dial gage.
⦁ Reduce power consumption
⦁ Decrease wear on bearings, seals, shafts and couplings
⦁ Avoid overheating of bearings and couplings
⦁ Reduce vibrations in shafts and foundation bolts
⦁ Significantly reduce damage to shafts and foundation bolts.
⦁ Alignment Shafts
⦁ Bearing Failure
⦁ Coupling Alignment
⦁ Drive Shaft Alignment
⦁ Foundation Settlement
⦁ Gearbox Alignment
⦁ Horizontal Alignment
⦁ Alignment Measurement
⦁ Industrial Alignment
⦁ Laser Alignment
⦁ Laser Alignment System
⦁ Motor Alignment
⦁ Alignment Shims
⦁ Prop Shaft Alignment
⦁ Pump Alignment
⦁ Roll Alignment
⦁ Alignment Systems
⦁ Vertical Alignment
Thermographic technology has been around since the mid 1960’s. It is used for a number of mechanical applications including predictive and preventive maintenance practices. The great benefit of using thermography is a non-intrusive non-contact inspection method in operating conditions environment temperature rises to identify hot spots detecting faults in heat related applications condition monitoring and diagnostic of machines standards are ASTM E1934 and ISO :18434-1 ISO:18636-7.
Thermal imaging Infrared thermographic systems are essentially imaging IR radiometers. Often, they provide IR images continuously, in real time, similar to the “TV” image provided by conventional video cameras. The imager itself contains, at a minimum, a detector and an image formation component. Complete thermographic systems also integrate an image processing and display system. An IR imager is often called radiometric when it is designed for measuring temperatures. Non-radiometric IR imagers are used in applications which do not require measuring quantitative temperatures differences, but rather are satisfied by a qualitative image display. For example, this type of imager is used for night vision and surveillance. Non-radiometric imagers do not need extensive calibration, thermal stability, or image processing capabilities, making them less expensive.
Passive IRT is used in quality control and process monitoring applications. Temperature plays a crucial role in any industrial process. Thus, temperature measurement and monitoring during and after the industrial process is critical to achieve optimal results, such as steel rolling or sinterization. However, the computation of temperature from infrared images is not only based on measured radiation; it also depends on the internal camera calibration, as well as on the emissivity of the object radiating energy.
Active IRT is mostly used in non-destructive testing applications, where an external stimulus is applied to the specimen in order to induce relevant thermal contrasts between regions of interest. It is applied to the inspection of materials for subsurface defect detection and to detect areas of the specimen with different properties below the surface. Some subsurface anomalies are very subtle. Therefore, the signal levels associated with them can be lost in the thermographic data noise. In these cases, different post- processing methods can be used to improve the signal to noise(SNR) content of thermographic data.
In vibro thermography, the heat generated by the friction of the discontinuities, cracks or even delamination’s is induced by the effect of mechanical excitation (20–50Hz) applied externally to the structure. These discontinuities are excited under speciﬁc mechanical resonances. Depending on the variation of the frequency of mechanical excitation, the local thermal gradients that indicate the presence of the defect can appear or disappear.
Ultrasound thermography (UT) is a variation of vibro thermography. While the structure under study is vibrated in vibro thermography, in UT, a piezoelectric effect introduces ultrasonic waves that propagate through the material. A high-frequency ultrasound signal is generated at 40kHz and is additionally modulated with another lower frequency signal. The test conﬁguration is as follows a horn (sonotrode) injects ultrasound waves into the material; low frequency waves make spreading possible, while high frequency vibration produces heat by the friction of particles.
Thermoinduction thermography creates eddy currents within the material to be inspected by circulating a current at certain frequencies along an induction coil. The current density where the defects are located is different, producing heat on the surface.
Pulsed thermography involves brieﬂy heating the specimen with a short pulse of thermal stimulation and then recording the temperature decay curve. The temperature of the material varies rapidly after the initial thermal pulse, while the thermal front propagates by diffusion through the surface. The presence of a discontinuity reduces the diffusion rate, so that, by observing the temperature of the surface, the discontinuities appear as areas of different temperatures with respect to the surrounding sound areas. Therefore, deeper discontinuities will be observed later and with a smaller contrast.
⦁ Heat mass transfer.
⦁ Electromagnetic spectrum.
⦁ Emittance, reflectance, and transmittance.
⦁ Atmospheric transmission.
⦁ Theory and thermal signatures of mechanical problems.
⦁ Rotating equipment frictions faults.
⦁ Transmission components.
⦁ High-temperature insulation
⦁ Fluid flow Systems.
⦁ Active thermographic inspection techniques.
⦁ Heat exchangers •
⦁ Piping systems •
⦁ Boilers and furnaces •
⦁ Steam Traps •
⦁ Valves •
⦁ Gear boxes •
⦁ Vessels and Tanks •
⦁ Duct blockages.
⦁ Vaccum leaks.
⦁ Refractory losses.
⦁ Lime kilns.
⦁ Welded joints.
⦁ Bearings systems,
⦁ Conveyor and Belts system,
⦁ Oil and gas tank inspection,
⦁ Rotating machines their associated driven components.
⦁ Energy delivery systems •
⦁ HVAC systems.
⦁ Automotive, Marine, and Aeronautical, Glass.
⦁ Manufacturing Applications.
⦁ Gasoline and Diesel engines •
A particle counter is an instrument that detects and counts physical. Particles, crystals, and droplets occur in many chemical processes, across a range of industries, and often pose challenges for scientists and engineers who are tasked with optimizing product quality and process efficiency. Characterizing particle properties effectively, in particular particle size and shape and count, allows processing problems to be solved and product quality to be improved.
The nature of particle counting is based on four most common online particles measuring methods.
1.Industrial computed tomography
Aerosol particle counters are used to determine the air quality by counting and sizing the number of particles in the air. This information is useful in determining the amount of particles inside a building or in the ambient air. It also is useful in understanding the cleanliness level in a controlled environment. A common controlled environment aerosol particle counters are used in is a cleanrooms.
U.S. FED STD 209E cleanroom standards
ISO 14644-1 cleanroom standards
British Standard 5295
Liquid particle counters are used to determine the quality of the liquid passing through them. The size and number of particles can determine if the liquid is clean enough to be used for the designed application. Liquid particle counters can be used to test the quality of drinking water or cleaning solutions, or the cleanliness of power generation equipment, manufacturing parts, or injectable drugs.
Liquid particle counters are also used to determine the cleanliness level of hydraulic fluids and various other systems including (engines, gears and compressors), the reason being that 75-80% of hydraulic breakdowns can be attributed to contamination. There are various types, installed on the equipment, operated in a laboratory as part of an oil analysis.
ISO 4406:1999, NAS1638 and SAE AS 4059
Solid particle counters are used to measure dry particles for various industrial applications. One such application could be for the detection of particle size coming from a rock crusher within a mining quarry. Sieves are the standard instruments used to measure dry particle size. Vision based systems are also used to measure dry particle size. With a vision-based system quick and efficient particle sizing can be done with ease and tremendous accuracy.
ISO Standard 4406:1999