**BACKGROUND OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS**

The finite element analysis can be traced back to the work by Alexander Hrennikoff (1941) and Richard Courant (1942). Hrenikoff introduced the framework method, in which a plane elastic medium was represented as collections of bars and beams. These pioneers share one essential characteristic: mesh discretization of a continuous domain into a set of discrete sub-domains, usually called elements.

• In 1950s, solution of large number of simultaneous equations became possible because of the digital computer.

• In 1960, Ray W. Clough first published a paper using term “Finite Element Method”. • In 1965, First conference on “finite elements” was held.

• In 1967, the first book on the “Finite Element Method” was published by Zienkiewicz and Chung.

• In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the FEM was applied to a wide variety of engineering problems.

• In the 1970s, most commercial FEM software packages (ABAQUS, NASTRAN, ANSYS, etc.) originated. Interactive FE programs on supercomputer lead to rapid growth of CAD systems.

• In the 1980s, algorithm on electromagnetic applications, fluid flow and thermal analysis were developed with the use of FE program.

• Engineers can evaluate ways to control the vibrations and extend the use of flexible, deployable structures in space using FE and other methods in the 1990s. Trends to solve fully coupled solution of fluid flows with structural interactions, bio-mechanics related problems with a higher level of accuracy were observed in this decade.

With the development of finite element method, together with tremendous increases in computing power and convenience, today it is possible to understand structural behavior with levels of accuracy. This was in fact the beyond of imagination before the computer age.

A GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

**PREPROCESSING**

⦁ Define the geometric domain of the problem.

⦁ Define the element type(s) to be used.

⦁ Define the material properties of the elements.

⦁ Define the geometric properties of the elements (length, area, and the like).

⦁ Define the element connectivities (mesh the model).

⦁ Define the physical constraints (boundary conditions). Define the loadings.

**SOLUTION**

⦁ computes the unknown values of the primary field variable(s)

⦁ computed values are then used by back substitution to compute additional, derived variables, such as reaction forces, element stresses, and heat flow.

**POSTPROCESSING**

⦁ Postprocessor software contains sophisticated routines used for sorting, printing, and plotting selected results from a finite element solution.

**APPLICATIONS**

1.Mechanical, Aerospace, Civil,Automotive Engineering Structural.

2.Stress Analysis

2.1. Static/Dynamic

2.2. Linear/Nonlinear.

3. Fluid Flow.

4. Heat Transfer.

5.Electromagnetic Fields.

6 Soil Mechanics

7. Acoustics

8. Biomechanics.